1. The idea of the "Six Images of Karelia" was presented first time in Russian Karelia, in the town of Sortavala (that has been on both sides of the border), where a special session of a conference "Border Regions in Transition" was organised in June 1997. Since that this presentation has been part of the lecture series in the Karelia and Baltic Study programme at the University of Joensuu. The topic was further elaborated in an article "The Changing Border and the Many Images of Karelia" published in 1999 (see Eskelinen, Liikanen & Oksa (eds.): Curtains of Iron and Gold. Reconstructing Borders and Scales of Interaction. Ashgate, Aldershot ). Basically the same idea is available in Finnish: Jukka Oksa: ”Kuusi mielikuvaa Karjalasta.” Suomen Lähialueet 3/1999, Tilastokeskus.
2. The first edition of Kalevala, or the old poems from the ancient times of Finnish people was published in 1835. Of the various English editions the following may be mentioned: Kalevala: the Land of Heroes, Everyman's, London, 1977; The Kalevala or Poems of the Kalevala District, 11th pr. Harvard U.P., Cambridge (Mass.), 1995. On the birth and the role of Kalevala see, for example, Asplund et al., 1985; Ikäheimonen-Lindgren, 1984; Kirkinen, 1985.
3. The Russian North also is reflected through economic definitions. The economic area of the North in the Russian Federation (the European North) consists of the Murmansk, Archangel and Volog Regions and the Komi and Karelian Republics, together with a population of over six million inhabitants. From south to north it stretches 1300 km and 1600 km from west to east. The economy is based on the exploitation of natural resources (oil, minerals, coal, forests, hydro-electric power). The development of the huge Soviet production complexes often included construction of new northern towns and transfers of the labour force.
Asplund, A. and Lipponen, U. (eds.) (1985), Kalevala 1835-1985: The birth of the Kalevala, Finnish Literature Society, Helsinki.
Cronberg, Tarja (1999) "Border-crossings. The Co-construction of National Security and Regional Development." Heikki Eskelinen, Ilkka Liikanen & Jukka Oksa (eds.) Curtains of Iron and Gold. Reconstructing Borders and Scales of Interaction. Ashgate, Aldershot , 317-328.
Eskelinen, H., Oksa, J. and Austin, D. (eds.) (1994), Russian Karelia in Search of a New Role, Karelian Institute, University of Joensuu, Joensuu.
Eskelinen, Heikki, Ilkka Liikanen & Jukka Oksa (eds., 1999). Curtains of Iron and Gold. Reconstructing Borders and Scales of Interaction. Ashgate, Aldershot.
Ikäheimonen-Lindgren, S. (1984), Kalevala and the Other Arts: Translations, Books, and Articles in English, Indiana University, Bloomington.
Kalevala: the Land of Heroes (1977), Everyman's, London.
(The) Kalevala or Poems of the Kalevala District (1995, 11th pr.) Harvard U.P., Cambridge (Mass.).
Kirkinen, H. (1985), The Kalevala: An Epic of Finland and All Mankind, Finnish-American Cultural Institute, Helsinki.
Lehtinen, A. A. (1994), "Neocolonialism in the Viena Karelia", in H. Eskelinen, J. Oksa and D. Austin (eds.), Russian Karelia in Search of a New Role, Karelian Institute, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, pp. 147-159.
Karjalan reformi. Reforma Karelii. Return of Karelia. Published by the ProKarelia group. Tammer-Paino. Tampere 2001.
The Karelian Issue. Published by the Karelian Association. Helsinki 1996.
Linkola, P. (1995), "Karjala", Carelia 5/95, Petrozavodsk.
Martinson, H. (1991), Aniara, a Review of Man in Time and Space. Translated by Stephen Klass and Leif Sjöberg, Vekerum förlag, Stockholm.
Sevander, M. (1993), Red Exodus. Finnish-American Emigration to Russia, Oscat, Duluth, USA.